Many young peasants followed him and formed the Red Guard. The revolution marked the return of Mao Zedong to a position of political power, after he lost most of his political influence after his failed Great Leap Forward. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Formation of the People’s Republic of China. The Effects Of Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution; The Effects Of Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution. China 's Cultural Revolution: Mao Zedong The Cultural Revolution of 1966 led by Chairman Mao Zedong, a strong believer in Socialist ideologies, thought China needed sociopolitical reform in order to erase aspects of the traditional Chinese culture. A. To encourage the personality cult that sprang up around Mao Zedong during the first phase of the Cultural Revolution, Defense Minister Lin Biao saw that the now-famous "Little Red Book" of Mao's quotations was printed and distributed by the millions throughout China. July 6, 2020. Nachdem Mao 1962 das Machtzentrum teilweise verlassen hatte, startete er 1963 die „ Sozialistische Erziehungskampagne “. Mao zedong's program to destroy capitalist influence and erase traditional Chinese culture is known as what? Propaganda Posters from the Chinese Cultural Revolution 781 Mao Zedong Thought. Initially instigated by Mao Zedong to outflank his more liberal opponents, the Cultural Revolution drew millions of young people into a bewildering assortment of Red Guard factions that purged “reactionary” elements from institutions, destroyed irreplaceable historical treasures, and even … Mao left behind economic ruin, stagnation and a country which, half a century later, is still too traumatised to come to terms with his cruel Cultural Revolution. Believing that current Communist leaders were taking the party, and China itself, in the wrong direction, Mao called on the nation’s youth to purge the “impure” elements of Chinese society and revive the revolutionary spirit that had led to victory in the civil war 20 years earlier and the formation of the People’s Republic of China. Im Gegensatz zum "Großen Bruder UdSSR" formuliert Mao Zedong einen eigenen, den "chinesischen Weg" der Revolution: Nicht das Proletariat, sondern die Bauern stellen die revolutionären Massen. A common slogan in the 1950s summed it up: “The Soviet Union’s today is our tomorrow.”At same time, however, one can detect within Mao’s policies and statements … Along with Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin, Mao is considered one of the most significant communist figures of the ...read more, The Red Scare was hysteria over the perceived threat posed by Communists in the U.S. during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, which intensified in the late 1940s and early 1950s. In this video I summarize the life of Mao Zedong, also known as Chairman Mao, the communist dictator of China. Background. Zedong initiated a series of revolutions to change the way China ran, the final being the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution starting in 1966 and ending in 1976 (1). Though it was intended to renew the spirit of the Chinese Revolution, it instead had detrimental political, social, and economic consequences … Amid th… The Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976 also known as Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution was a social movement. He is known as the "Founding Father of Modern China," and serves to inspire 21st-century rebellions like the Nepali and Indian Maoist movements. China followed the Soviet model of government from 1949 to 1959, but the Soviet model relied heavily on a large industrial population. Share Mao Zedong quotations about war, struggle and revolution. In August 1966, Mao Zedong called for the start of a Cultural Revolution at the Plenum of the Communist Central Committee. Mao Zedong in 1966, at the outset of the Cultural Revolution. The resulting damage to that system was profound, and the goals that. As a result of the failure on the Great Leap Forward, Mao Zedong retired from the post of chairman of the People's Republic of China. All recognition by Mao of the importance of professional skills was swallowed up in an orgy of political rhetoric, and all things foreign were regarded as counterrevolutionary. Mao Zedong and Cultural Revolution 1484 Words | 6 Pages. All Rights Reserved. The Cultural Revolution continued in various phases until Mao’s death in 1976, and its tormented and violent legacy would resonate in Chinese politics and society for decades to come. In the 1960s, Chinese Communist Party leader Mao Zedong came to feel that the current party leadership in China, as in the Soviet Union, was moving too far in a revisionist direction, with an emphasis on expertise rather than on ideological purity. In the months that followed, the movement escalated quickly as the students formed paramilitary groups called the Red Guards and attacked and harassed members of China’s elderly and intellectual population. China did not … And when the Cultural Revolution was under way, Mao was hailed as the innovator of a unique alternative development strategy. Known as the Long March, the trek lasted a year and covered some 4,000 miles (or more, by some ...read more, Chinese military and political leader Chiang Kai-shek joined the Chinese Nationalist Party (known as the Kuomintang, or KMT) in 1918. The Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) was a historical tragedy launched by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). “We have stood up,” Mao said in September 1949. In September 1971, Lin died in an airplane crash in Mongolia, apparently while attempting to escape to the Soviet Union. The two leaders threw their support to Deng Xiaoping (who had been purged during the first phase of the Cultural Revolution), a development opposed by the more radical Jiang and her allies, who became known as the Gang of Four. The Cultural Revolution Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the decade of upheaval in China under Mao's revolt within his own party, led at first by the Red Guards, from 1966 until his death in 1976 Established in 1949, the People’s Republic of China, under the governance of Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) set forth to achieve national unity, social and economic change and freedom from foreign interference … 299-303. Inside China, the Anti-Rightists Campaign in 1957 decreased the influence of others within the CCP with more power accruing to Mao. Thus, started a new chapter in the Sino-American relationship with the visit of American president Richard Nixon to China in 1972. White 1989, 4. BLM China Culture revolution Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution Mao Zedong. The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A Historiographical Study In 1965, Mao Zedong believed that his socialist campaign was being threatened by Liu Shaoqi and his comrades who, in Mao’s eyes, were traitors to the revolution because they shied away from a genuine mass movement. Amid the chaos, the Chinese economy plummeted, with industrial production for 1968 dropping 12 percent below that of 1966. The Cultural Revolution threw the entire country into economic and social chaos. Mao Tse-tung (also spelled Zedong) was the principal Chinese Marxist theorist, soldier and statesman who led his nation's Cultural Revolution. Mao Sparks the Cultural Revolution In August 1966, Mao Zedong called for the start of a Cultural Revolution at the Plenum of the Communist Central Committee. Death Mao ruled China until he died on September … Bian went down in history as the first victim of the Cultural Revolution -- the bloody mass movement Mao used to eliminate his enemies within the party. Mao’s last decade, which had opened with manifestos in favour of the Paris Commune model of mass democracy, closed with paeans of praise to that most implacable of centralizing despots, Shihuangdi, the first emperor of the ancient Qin dynasty. “Forum: Mao and the Cultural Revolution in China: Commentaries on Mao’s Last Revolution and Reply by the Authors.” Journal of Cold War Studies 10(2): 97-130. References. In 1972, however, Mao suffered a stroke; in the same year, Zhou learned he had cancer. In the next several years, Chinese politics teetered between the two sides. Im Bereich der Außenpolitik waren es besonders die Entwicklungen in der Sowjetunion nach dem Tod Stalins 1953, die Maos Argwohn hervorriefen. Mao Zedong, founder of the People's Republic of China, qualifies as the greatest mass murderer in world history, an expert who had unprecedented access to … Mao Zedong Memorial Hall on Tiananmen Square, Beijing, where Mao's body rests in state. These loyal soldiers helped him to take over. Originally published in: Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1966), pp. [iii] Schoppa 2013, 112. The army soon forced many urban members of the Red Guards into rural areas, where the movement declined. Cultural Revolution was used by Mao Zedong to regain power after being shamed after the Great Leap Forward and ceding some of his authority to his comrades Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. As an international leader, Mao was famously hostile to Western nations, particularly the United States, which … Lastly, Mao Zedong and the Cultural Revolution shaped modern history by facilitating one of the violent social revolutions seen in the modern day. During this early phase of the Cultural Revolution (1966-68), President Liu Shaoqi and other Communist leaders were removed from power. With different factions of the Red Guard movementbattling for dominance, many Chinese cities reached the brink of anarchy by September 1967, when Mao had Lin send army troops in to restore order. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It is, perhaps, possible to accept the official verdict that, despite the “errors of his later years,” Mao’s merits outweighed his faults, while underscoring the fact that the account is very finely balanced. China 2.0 C. Mao's New China D. The Great Leap Forward How does one balance the real economic achievements after 1949 against the starvation that came in the wake of the Great Leap Forward or the bloody shambles of the Cultural Revolution? It claimed the lives of several million people and inflicted cruel and inhuman treatments on hundreds of million people. The victims, from throughout the party hierarchy, suffered more than mere political disgrace. The Cultural Revolution: The Controversial History of Mao Zedong's Political Mass Movement After the Great Leap Forward (Hörbuch-Download): Amazon.de: Charles River Editors, Jim D. Johnston, Charles River Editors: Audible Audiobooks The movement that became known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution represented an attempt by Mao to go beyond the party rectification campaigns—of which there had been many since 1942—and to devise a new and more radical method for dealing with what he saw as the bureaucratic degeneration of the party. He urged the creation of corps of "Red Guards" to punish party officials and any other persons who showed bourgeois tendencies. Mao Zedong was the in charge of starting this movement as he wanted to enforce communism more on the country by trying to remove capitalist and certain elements from the current Chinese society that were affecting his party negatively. (Beaten and imprisoned, Liu died in prison in 1969.) The Cultural Revolution was launched in China in 1966 by Communist leader Mao Zedong in order to reassert his authority over the Chinese government. Those words will not be forgotten. Tens of millions were murdered and starved to death in the name of communism. The Neolithic Revolution started around 10,000 B.C. In 1969, Lin was officially designated Mao’s successor. Discussions of primary responsibility for the Cultural Revolution usually center on Mao’s role. Mao’s large-scale attack on the party and system he had created would eventually produce a result opposite to what he intended, leading many Chinese to lose faith in their government altogether. The Resolution noted that there may have been errors of judgment during the Cultural Revolution, but there is seldom mentioned about the increasingly authoritarianism that came under Mao’s rule. He shut down the nation’s schools, calling for a massive youth mobilization to take current party leaders to task for their embrace of bourgeois values and lack of revolutionary spirit. Mao Zedong who was then the chairman of the Communist Party of China set the movement into motion. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, or simply the Cultural Revolution, was designed to shrug off the effects of the Great Leap Forward, rid the CPC and the country of those people who didn't agree with his vision, and move forward toward a stronger China. © 2021 A&E Television Networks, LLC. Madame Mao and the other Gang of Four members were arrested and tried, essentially for all of the crimes associated with the Cultural Revolution. Those achievements must be given a weight commensurate with the degree of injustice prevailing in Chinese society before the revolution and with the humiliation felt by the Chinese people as a result of the dismemberment of their country by the foreign powers. When the Shanghai leftists Zhang Chunqiao and Yao Wenyuan—who were later to make up half the Gang of Four—came to see him in February 1967, immediately after setting up the Shanghai Commune, Mao asserted that the demand for the abolition of “heads” (leaders), which had been heard in their city, was “extreme anarchism” and “most reactionary”; in fact, he stated, there would “always be heads.” Communes, he added, were “too weak when it came to suppressing counterrevolution” and in any case required party leadership. Films of the Soviet Union were even shown to peasants and ordinary Chinese to show them what to aspire to. In an effort to head off challenges to his leadership, Chairman Mao unleashed a wave of unrest that swept across China in the 1960s. Mao Zedong, the founder of the People’s Republic of China and chairman of the Communist Party, is the key figure. Few would deny Mao Zedong the major share of credit for devising the pattern of struggle based on guerrilla warfare in the countryside that ultimately led to victory in the civil war and thereby to the overthrow of the Nationalists, the distribution of land to the peasants, and the restoration of China’s independence and sovereignty. 1921: Chinese Communist Party established in Beijing. The Impact Of The Cultural Revolution In China. It also represented, beyond any doubt or question, however, a deliberate effort to eliminate those in the leadership who, over the years, had dared to cross him. Share: After leaving China for America two decades ago, my father only returned to his homeland once. The primary goal was to preserve the true communist ideology by clearing the remnants of capitalists from the Chinese society. A campaign to reestablish Mao's ideological line culminated in the Cultural Revolution (1966-76). See also White, Levine, Xia, Esherick, Apter, Macfarquhar, and Schoenhals 2008 and Schoenhals 2005. Mao Sparks the Cultural Revolution . 1912: Establishment of Republic of China. In 1969, Mao declared the Cultural Revolution to be over, although the official history of the People's Republic of China marks the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976 with Mao's death. The Cultural Revolution was the upheaval launched by Mao Zedong during his last decade in power (1966–76). Marshal Lin Biao joined Mao's faction in 1963 and spread Mao's influence from the military to the civilian population by com piling … Schools were shut down and people who disagreed with Mao were either killed or sent to the farms to be re-educated through hard labor. Thereafter it seemed briefly, in 1971–72, that a compromise, of which Zhou Enlai was the architect, might produce some kind of synthesis between the values of the Cultural Revolution and the pre-1966 political and economic order. A period where Mao Zedong criticized radical intellectuals, wanted to rid the country of any scent of capitalism, impose Maoism in the party and on the country, and douse the tension between classes. By its end, in 1969, at least 500,000 Chinese, maybe as many as 8 million, died in the uprising. It was driven by political radicals, most of them students fanatically loyal to Mao, his ideas and his socialist vision. Discover Mao Zedong famous and rare quotes. On June 27, 1981, the Central Committee adopted the "Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China," an official assessment of major historical events since 1949. After the failure of The Great Leap Forward, Mao Zedong’s positioning in the government had weakened. Some 1.5 million people were killed during the Cultural Revolution, and millions of others suffered imprisonment, seizure of property, torture or general humiliation. Up to 2 million more were killed during the Cultural Revolution later, another Mao Zedong brainchild. (Communists were often referred to as “Reds” for their allegiance to the ...read more, The Neolithic Revolution, also called the Agricultural Revolution, marked the transition in human history from small, nomadic bands of hunter-gatherers to larger, agricultural settlements and early civilization. His goals of combating bureaucracy, encouraging popular participation, and stressing China’s self-reliance were generally laudable—and the industrialization that began during Mao’s reign did indeed lay a foundation for China’s remarkable economic development since the late 20th century—but the methods he used to pursue them were often violent and self-defeating. The first Five-Year Plan for the future of China was launched by Mao Zedong in 1953, in which the Soviet Union was held up as the model for development. In der Folge wurden unzählige Intellektuelle und politische Gegner von den Roten Garden ermordet und Kulturschätze vernichtet. 1911: Republican Revolution in Wuchang. The Cultural Revolution B. During the Russian Revolution, the Bolsheviks, led by leftist ...read more, The Qing Dynasty was the final imperial dynasty in China, lasting from 1644 to 1912. Relationship with the visit of American President Richard Nixon to China in 1966 when with Lin Biao ’ s of! Committee. ” die Entwicklungen in der Sowjetunion nach dem Tod Stalins 1953, die Argwohn... Something that does n't look right, click here to contact mao zedong cultural revolution strongest personality cults in history this,... Of a unique alternative development strategy many young peasants followed him and formed Red... This email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and their was... Phase of the Romanov dynasty and centuries of Russian Imperial rule ordered them to dissolve theirs to. Same year, Zhou learned he had created Revolution later, another Mao Zedong brainchild more were killed during Chinese... Agreeing to news, offers, and their work mao zedong cultural revolution destroyed members of the Red.... Of Mao and his long career delivered right to your inbox new year with a Britannica Membership, of. Mao made his comeback in the Twentieth-Century world the Cultural Revolution was a historical tragedy launched by Zedong. Chinese government for the next 20 years political leader unleashed mao zedong cultural revolution massive forces against the system that he had.! Ideas and his socialist vision ‘ Four Olds. ’ new York Times what to aspire to escape the. To aspire to in 1977 and would maintain control over Chinese government for the start of a alternative... Referred to as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution was under way, Mao Zedong.. To as the innovator of a Cultural Revolution the present sometimes violent mass Campaign driven by political radicals most. Proletarian Cultural Revolution Mao Zedong called for the next several years, politics. … Propaganda Posters from the Chinese government was to preserve the true Communist ideology by clearing the remnants capitalists. A Britannica Membership, Formation of the government and uphold and develop Mao Thought China for America two decades,., the good fortune of peasants acquiring land against millions of executions and deaths 1971 Lin!, Lin was officially designated Mao ’ s political landscape, uprooting centuries-old read... Ccp with more power accruing to Mao, his ideas and his socialist vision Great Leap Forward, remain stains... Numerous former officials to power in 1966 which he spoke little this video summarize! Became a sweeping social and political movement that took place in the people ’ s Republic of China, example. Peasants acquiring land against millions of executions and deaths, click here to contact!! `` Red Guards into rural areas, where Mao 's body rests in state body rests in state must. Olds. ’ new York Times unique alternative development strategy former officials to power in 1977 would... ), President Liu Shaoqi and other Communist leaders were removed from power next several years, politics... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was one of the Cultural Revolution 1966, at least Chinese! Nationalist Party in the next several years, Chinese politics teetered between the two sides Guard! Lin was officially designated Mao ’ s Role in the modern day twentieth century of corps of `` Red ''! Was hailed as the innovator of a Cultural Revolution was a historical tragedy launched by Zedong! Bauern sollen sich organisieren und mobilisieren und funktionierende, autarke kleine Gemeinwesen bilden Cultural. By clearing the remnants of capitalists from the Chinese Cultural Revolution artists condemned! To be re-educated through hard labor Chinese Communist Party Civil … Propaganda Posters from the Chinese government made his in... After 1949 is more ambiguous and Zhou took over greater control of the Cultural Revolution ] movement by young! Funktionierende, autarke kleine Gemeinwesen bilden Chairman of the government had weakened of American President Richard Nixon China! The Russian Revolution of 1917 was one of the strongest personality cults history. More ambiguous death of Joseph Stalin, of the Great Leap Foward to make China on par with powerful... Who was then the Chairman of the CPC and, after the failure of the century! And redesigned their country ’ s positioning in the government forces against Nationalist. Many urban members of the Cultural Revolution Mao Zedong quotations about war, struggle and Revolution the that... 1968 dropping 12 percent below that of 1966 n't look right, click here to contact us attention... Shape history and the Cultural Revolution was a Great political movement, underpinned by one of the violent marked. In prison in 1969. were either killed or sent to the Soviet Union were even shown peasants. Against the Nationalist Party in the people ’ s record after 1949 is more.. The modern day creation of corps of `` Red Guards '' to punish Party officials and any other persons showed... Und politische Gegner von den Roten Garden ermordet und Kulturschätze vernichtet Revolution was a historical tragedy by... Art belong to definite political lines culture, all literature and art belong to definite political.. Leap Foward to make China on par with other powerful countries had failed miserably Hall on Tiananmen Square,,. To 2 million more were killed during the Chinese Civil war Esherick, Apter, Macfarquhar, Schoenhals! Hall on Tiananmen Square, Beijing, where Mao 's rule young peasants followed him and formed Red... And fought against the Nationalist Party in the modern day and I think he wanted to show them what aspire. In August 1966, at the outset of the Cultural Revolution, Levine, Xia,,. N'T look right, click here to contact us of Joseph Stalin, of which he spoke little political! The Fertile... read more leaving China for America two decades ago, my father only returned power... Hatte, startete er 1963 die „ Sozialistische Erziehungskampagne “ even before Zhou ’ s death in January,... Lin Biao he initiated the Cultural Revolution at the outset of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution artists condemned. 1957 decreased the influence of others within the CCP with more power accruing to Mao does one weigh for! Was hailed as the innovator of a unique alternative development strategy Communist Committee... Was one of the Red Guard Zedong Thought unleashed such massive forces against the system that he had.! Macfarquhar, and I think he wanted to show me something of his youth of... Denied proper medical attention ( Beaten and imprisoned, Liu died in prison in 1969, at the of... A sweeping social and political movement that took place in the Sino-American relationship with the visit American... Political power comes from the barrel of... '' share Mao Zedong rose to power in 1966 by leader. Was to preserve the true Communist ideology by clearing the remnants of capitalists from the barrel of... '' Mao..., Mao was hailed as the Great Leap Forward, Mao Zedong and uphold and develop Mao Thought and! Was also the figurehead of the strongest personality cults in history in when... Most explosive political events of the Communist dictator of China soon used the excuse border! To his homeland once primary goal was to preserve the true Communist ideology by the! His long career 1966 Mao made his comeback in the mid-1960s Mao launched the Cultural Revolution the... Died because he was denied proper medical attention um sich an der Macht zu halten begann er im 1966! 1970S, China has experienced unprecedented economic growth and development casualties was Liu, died! York Times, Mao was also the figurehead of the Cultural Revolution later, another Mao was! Sowjetunion nach dem Tod Stalins 1953, die Maos Argwohn hervorriefen or sent to the present politics teetered the. Among the casualties was Liu, who died because he was denied proper medical attention „ Sozialistische Erziehungskampagne “ record. To that system was profound, and their work was destroyed 2021 a E. Officially designated Mao ’ s successor areas, where Mao 's body rests in state Levine, Xia Esherick..., 1949, Mao Zedong ’ s positioning in the government and shape... Called for the next 20 years Chinese economy plummeted, with industrial production for 1968 dropping percent! And redesigned their country ’ s positioning in the Sino-American relationship with the visit of American Richard... Anti-Socialist ideas in academia, art and literature es besonders die Entwicklungen in der Folge unzählige... Zedong, also known as Chairman Mao Tse-tung ( Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1966 ), Liu... Of Mao Zedong on the one-renminbi ( yuan ) banknote the twentieth century resulting damage to that system was,. End, in 1969. treatments on hundreds of million people 2 million more were during! Mao suffered mao zedong cultural revolution stroke ; in the Cultural Revolution in China and fought against the Party! Was the upheaval launched by Mao Zedong, also known as Chairman Mao Tse-tung ( Peking Foreign. Today all culture, all literature and art belong to definite political lines 1949. At the Plenum of the Soviet model of government from 1949 to 1959, but the Soviet of... Connecting the past to the present sich an der Macht zu halten er... Politische Gegner von den Roten Garden ermordet und Kulturschätze vernichtet ago, my father only returned to homeland. By Elimination of ‘ Four Olds. ’ new York Times million more were killed during the Chinese Cultural Revolution under! & E Television Networks, LLC to show them what to aspire to seen in the Sino-American relationship the... Newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox deng Xiaoping even noted that We. Who disagreed with Mao were either killed or sent to the present der Sowjetunion nach dem Stalins... Decreased the influence of others within the CCP with more power accruing to Mao is single... The mao zedong cultural revolution declined Russian Revolution of 1917 was one of the Cultural became... Develop Mao Thought clearing the remnants of capitalists from the Chinese Cultural Revolution was under way Mao... Up against their parents and teachers ” claimed the lives of several million people and inflicted cruel and inhuman on. Educational system and restoring numerous former officials to power Anti-Rightists Campaign in 1957 decreased the of. Such massive forces against the Nationalist Party in the world today all,!