The St. Johns River (Spanish: Río San Juan) is the longest river in the U.S. state of Florida and its most significant one for commercial and recreational use. " Bartram's journals attracted the attention of such prominent Americans as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton. The natural decay of plant materials stain the water to appear somewhat like tea in color.  More than 19,000 acres (77 km2) have been purchased along Lake Apopka to restore its wetlands, and the SJRWMD has removed nearly 15,000,000 pounds (6,800,000 kg) of gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), a fish species that stores phosphorus and adds to algae problems. , Of vertebrates, numerous species of frog, salamander, snake, turtle, and alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) proliferate in marsh waters. Manatees are large, slow-moving herbivorous aquatic mammals whose primary threats are human development and collisions with swiftly moving watercraft.  The marshes around the St. Johns River upper basin teem with birds. All rights reserved. This basin, spreading throughout Orange, Lake, Volusia, and Seminole Counties, is home to the greater Orlando metropolitan area, where two million people live and major tourist attractions are located. From the central part of the state north, along the Atlantic Coast lived people in the St. Johns culture, named for the most significant nearby natural formation. After the civil war Pearson's Orange Springs resort declined in popularity due to the increasing attention to nearby Silver Springs—the source of the Silver River—at the turn of the 20th century, popularizing the Ocklawaha. Marine water measures at 35 parts per thousand (ppt) or more while fresh water measures below 2 ppt. Despite this, Clinton designated the St. Johns as one of only 14 American Heritage Rivers out of 126 nominated in 1998 for its ecological, historic, economic and cultural significance. Around 750 CE, the St. Johns culture learned to cultivate corn, adding to their diet of fish, game, and gourds. It has been the subject of William Bartram's journals, Harriet Beecher Stowe's letters home, and Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings' books. The two jetties at the entrance to the St. Johns River are built of rip-rap, which is permeable to spilled oil. "Zephaniah Kingsley, Nonconformist". Several smaller locations along the river sprang up around ferry landings, but when rail lines and then Interstate highways were constructed closer to the Atlantic Coast, many of the towns experienced significant economic decline, and ferry landings were forgotten. The Timucua, who had initially befriended the French, were not encouraged to make the Spanish allies because of colonial governor Pedro Menéndez de Avilés' abhorrence of French Protestantism and his view that the Timucuan beliefs were "Satanic".  The upper basin measures approximately 2,000 square miles (5,200 km2); the St. Johns transforms into a navigable waterway in Brevard County. [note 1] At 310 miles (500 km) long, it flows north and winds through or borders twelve counties.  What covers the peninsula is the result of simultaneous processes of deposits of sands, shells, and coral, and erosion from water and weather. This drained the St. Johns' headwaters eastward to the Indian River through canals dug across the Ten-Mile Ridge near Palm Bay. But millions of years of weathering eroded the Appalachians down to their current size and shape.  Sanford has adapted to the lake by building some of its downtown area on the waterfront; citizens use boat transportation and Sanford's public dock to commute into town. Pollution Water Pollution Air Pollution Tannic acid Air Pollution gets caught in the atmosphere and enters the river as rain. The St. Johns River begins as a network of marshes, consolidating into a blackwater stream. It lies so low that minor fluctuations in sea levels can have a dramatic effect on its geomorphology. , The proliferation of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in central Florida is a major attraction for fishermen from all over the country. With evidence of a wide variety of tools constructed around this time, archeologists note the transition into Archaic people. Both Palatka and Green Cove Springs have been popular tourist destinations in the past. The tide is currently falling in St. John's. The Archaic people made tools from bone, animal teeth, and antlers. One is the Hontoon Island State Park and Blue Springs State Park. Kingsley later married three other freed women in a polygamous relationship; Spanish-controlled Florida allowed interracial marriages, and white landowners such as James Erwin, George Clarke, Francisco Sánchez, John Fraser, and Francis Richard, Jr.—early settlers along the river—all were married to or in extramarital relationships with African women.  By 1573, the Timucua were in outright rebellion, testing the governor's patience and forcing Spanish settlers to abandon farms and garrisons in more interior parts of Florida; the Spanish could not persuade the Timucua to keep from attacking them. Cloud, and several others on the west coast of Florida. It ebbs and flows with tides that pass through the barrier islands and up the channel. Tropical Storm Fay in 2008 deposited 16 inches (410 mm) of rain in a 5-day period, most of it located near Melbourne. , Confederate Captain John William Pearson named his militia after the Ocklawaha River called the Ocklawaha Rangers in the American Civil War.  Where the river widens between Palatka and Jacksonville, wind becomes a significant factor in navigation, and both whitecap waves and calm surface waters are common. Email Location. Between Palatka and Jacksonville, that widens further to between 1 and 3 miles (1.6 and 4.8 km). The Santa Fe River is typical of many rivers in karst regions in that it completely disappears underground and then reappears 5 kilometres (3 mi) downstream. , Dissolved oxygen in fresh water is measured to indicate the health of plant and animal life.  The St. Johns provided a natural boundary to separate European colonies on the east bank and indigenous lands west of the river. Rapid decomposition of organic materials will decrease the amount of dissolved oxygen in the river, as will nutrients added to the water artificially by wastewater treatment runoff or drainage from fertilized agricultural fields. Lake Monroe, a large lake at 15 square miles (39 km2) with an average depth of 8 feet (2.4 m), drains a surrounding watershed of 2,420 square miles (6,300 km2). Because the river flows in a northerly direction, the upper basin is located in the headwaters of the river at its southernmost point. Springs are measured in magnitude of how much water is discharged, which is dependent upon season and rainfall. Several locations on the St. Johns or its tributaries reported at or below these minimums in the 1990s, including the mouth of the Wekiva River, the St. Johns at the town of Christmas, and in the early 2000s at Blue Spring and Blackwater Creek. Most people understand that the St. Johns River flows north, but few seem to understand why. , The first years following Florida's annexation to the United States in 1821 were marked with violent conflicts between white settlers and Seminoles, whose bands often included runaway African slaves. , The report also noted concerns about the District's conclusion that the water withdrawals will have few deleterious ecological effects. One of the most severe cold weather events recorded was in February 1835, when temperatures dropped to 8 degrees in Jacksonville. In 2008, the river's Water Management District undertook a Water Supply Impact Study of the proposed water withdrawals and asked the National Research Council to review science aspects of the study as it progressed.  Tropical storms and nor'easters are common occurrences along the Atlantic coast of Florida; the St. Johns River lies between 10 and 30 miles (16 and 48 km) inland, so any storm striking the counties of Indian River north to Duval produces rain that is drained by the St. Johns River. " Twenty-two towns along the St. Johns and environmental, sporting, recreation, boating, and educational organizations also supported its designation, but several prominent Republican politicians expressed concerns over increased federal regulations and restrictions on private property ownership along the river; the Florida House of Representatives passed a resolution asking President Bill Clinton not to include the St. Johns.  William's visit took him as far south as Blue Spring, where he remarked on the crystal clear views offered by the spring water: "The water is perfectly diaphanous, and here are continually a prodigious number and variety of fish; they appear as plain as though lying on a table before your eyes, although many feet deep in the water. Ocean worms, snails, and white-fingered mud crabs (Rhithropanopeus harrisii) have also been found far upriver where tidal influences are rare.  Farther upriver, the discharge rate ranges from 1,030 cubic feet (29 m3) per second near Lake Poinsett to 2,850 cubic feet (81 m3) per second near DeLand. The name first appeared on a Spanish map created between 1680 and 1700.  The river flows into many of the lakes, which further confuses navigation. "An Analysis of the Hydrologic and Hydraulic Factors During Flooding on the St. Johns River Caused by Tropical Storm Fay", National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. , The advent of regional types of pottery and stone tools made of flint or limestone marked further advancements around 500 BCE. Mollusks gather at the St. Johns estuary in large numbers, feeding on the bottom of the river and ocean floors. At 310 miles long, it winds through or borders twelve counties, three of which are the state's largest. There are four first magnitude springs that feed the St. Johns River: Silver Springs in Marion County, emitting between 250 and 1,290 cubic feet (7.1 and 36.5 m3)/second; Silver Glen Spring straddling Marion and Lake Counties, emitting between 38 and 245 cubic feet (1.1 and 6.9 m3)/second; Alexander Springs in Lake County, emitting between 56 and 202 cubic feet (1.6 and 5.7 m3)/second; and Blue Spring in Volusia County, emitting between 87 and 218 cubic feet (2.5 and 6.2 m3)/second. Michaux was followed by William Baldwin between 1811 and 1817. Salinity is increasing in the St. Johns River and its tributaries, according to the 2019 River … , The towns and cities along the lower basin of the river are some of the oldest in Florida, and their histories have centered on the river. In the upper basin, she remarked on the difficulty of determining direction due to the river's ambiguous flow, and wrote in a chapter titled "Hyacinth Drift" in her memoir Cross Creek that she had the best luck in watching the way the hyacinths floated. Popular activities in the springs include swimming, snorkeling, kayaking and canoeing. Although most of the pollutants in the river are washed from the southern parts of the river, the Jacksonville area produces approximately 36 percent of them found in the lower basin. , In 1795, Florida was transferred back to Spain which lured Americans with cheap land. In the year 2000, 3.5 million people lived within the various watersheds that feed into the St. Johns River. It is an oxygen- and nutrient-poor environment; what grows usually does so in peat which is created by centuries of decaying plant material. You’ll be amazed with up close and … Add To Collection. Touting crystal clear water that stays a constant 72 degrees, the springs are popular for locals and tourists alike. Common throughout the St. Johns River system, the stingray is a saltwater species that, uniquely enough, makes its home year round in the river.  Uniquely, it shares the same regional terrain as the parallel Kissimmee River, although the Kissimmee flows south. $144.99 per adult. St. Johns River. Flood control was the primary impetus behind its construction, though the broader reasoning and feasibility of the project remained unclear. In 1717, some of the groups were reorganized by the colonial governor; 248 Timucua were counted. St Johns River from Mayport to Sanford. Where the limestone or sand/clay overlay dissolves over the aquifer and the pressure of the water pushes out, springs form. Mayport is home to approximately 20 shrimping vessels that use the mouth of the St. Johns to access the Atlantic Ocean. In summer months, the temperature ranges from 74 and 92 °F (23 and 33 °C), and between 50 and 72 °F (10 and 22 °C) in the winter, although drops may occur in winter months to below freezing approximately a dozen times. And it doesn't have anything to do with the state of Georgia producing a vacuum. Wells are drilled in the surficial aquifer, which supplies better quality water in areas where the deepest aquifer has a high mineral content.  Human interaction with manatees in Blue Spring State Park is forbidden. Archaic peoples interred their dead in shallow peat marshes, which preserved much of the human tissue. Two of the largest lakes in the middle basin are created by the river: Lake Harney and Lake Monroe. The Army Corps of Engineers maintains shipping channels at least 12 feet (3.7 m) deep and 100 feet (30 m) wide. Digital access or digital and print delivery. , One unforeseen aspect of more people coming to Florida proved to be an overwhelming problem. Noll, Steven and Tegeder, M. David (August 2003). The large trees that line the river from its source to south of Jacksonville begin to transition into salt marshes east of the city. Over the past decade nearly 90,000 tons of sewage sludge have been trucked up from South Florida and dumped into the St. Johns River watershed and conservationists say … improving water quality. , The St. Johns River is under consideration as an additional water source to meet growing public water needs. Eight larger lakes and five smaller ones lie in the upper basin; one of the first is named Lake Hell 'n Blazes (sometimes polished to read as Lake Helen or Hellen Blazes), referencing oaths yelled by boatmen and fishermen in the early 19th century, frustrated when trying to navigate through floating islands of macrophytes, or muck and weeds, as the islands changed location with the creeping flow. We have … , Although the Spanish had colonized Florida for two centuries, the state remained the last part of the east coast of the United States to be developed and explored.  Mosquitos, born in water, are in turn the favorite food of 112 species of dragonflies and 44 species of damselflies in Florida.  The National Research Council found that, overall, the District performed a competent job in relating predicted environmental responses, including their magnitude and general degree of uncertainty, to the proposed range of water withdrawals. Murphy Creek/Dunn's Creek, Julington Creek, Birds found in the middle and upper St. Johns River basins. Hunting on the areas is good to fair for migratory bird, fair for deer and hog hunting, and poor for small game, turkey, and squirrel hunting. More info. A cruise upon the St. John’s is a return to original natural Florida, appearing much as it did when Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings explored the St. John’s in the early 20th century. (McCarthy, p.  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